Over the past 40 years, economic inequality has increased dramatically in the US, and inequalities persist in other nations. Understanding the causes and consequences of inequality is essential to develop policies to reduce them. CCPR research in this area is especially innovative because it spans the entire life course and focuses on how demographic processes influence inequality and mobility and because it develops and exploits new data sources. Research on inequality and socioeconomic mobility cuts across most domains of population research at CCPR, but some CCPR researchers, spanning several disciplines and academic departments, focus explicitly on these topics. This research investigates: (a) the effects of population processes (e.g., choices about marriage and fertility) on socioeconomic inequality, (b) national and regional variations in social mobility and inequality, (c) socioeconomic inequality and educational attainment, and (d) the interactions between labor market inequality and demographic processes. CCPR researchers are pioneers in theory and empirical research about the relationships among intergenerational demographic processes and social mobility.